San Antonio, city, seat (1837) of Bexar region, south-central Texas, UNITED STATE. It is situated at the headwaters of the San Antonio River on the Balcones Escarpment, about 80 miles (130 km) southwest of Austin. The 2nd most-populous city in Texas, it is the focus of a city that consists of Alamo Levels, Castle Hills, Converse, Kirby, Leon Valley, Live Oak, Schertz, Terrell Hills, Universal City, and also Windcrest. Inc. 1809. Area city, 412 square miles (1,067 square km). Pop. (2000) 1,144,646; San Antonio Metro Area, 1,711,703; (2010) 1,327,407; San Antonio City Area, 2,142,508.
Spanish travelers initially saw the site, after that a camp of the Payaya Indians, in 1691. San Antonio was established May 1, 1718, when a Spanish exploration from Mexico established the Objective San Antonio de Valero. The goal, later called the Alamo (Spanish: “Cottonwood”), was one of five established in the area as well as was named for St. Anthony of Padua. On May 5 a presidio (armed forces fort) referred to as San Antonio de Béxar was developed close by. The site, on the river’s west bank, was a stopping place on the path via the Texas wilderness between objectives on the Rio Grande and those in East Texas.
In 1731 settlers from the Canary Islands set out the community of San Fernando de Béxar near the presidio, where a noncombatant community had actually been planned when the presidio and also goal were developed. Throughout its early years the settlement experienced raids by Apache as well as Comanche people. The objective was secularized in 1793 and ended up being a military post. San Fernando de Béxar worked as rural resources from 1773 to 1824, yet in succeeding years its political authority subsided. By 1837, when it ended up being a region seat of the Republic of Texas, it had actually been relabelled San Antonio.
At the time of Mexican freedom in 1821, San Antonio was, along with Goliad and Nacogdoches, among 3 developed Spanish areas in Texas. In the summer season of that year, Stephen Austin showed up in the city– after that seat of the Spanish federal government in Texas– to follow up on a permit acquired by his father for the admission of 300 UNITED STATE households into the region. In December 1835, initially of the Texas Revolution, Texan pressures inhabited the Alamo. They stayed there up until March 1836, when they were massacred by Mexican troops under General Antonio López de Santa Anna following a 13-day siege. The presidio disappeared with the freedom of Texas in April.
In 1836 San Antonio was still the primary city of Texas, with some 2,500 citizens. It proliferated after self-reliance, led by lots of German immigrants. During the last decades of the 19th century, San Antonio, as the beginning point for the Chisholm Path, came to be a major livestock centre, where herds were put together for the overland drives to the railheads in Kansas.
The city rapidly ended up being the commercial hub of the Southwest. The arrival of the very first railway in 1877 brought travelers from the American South, as well as Mexican immigrants resolved there after the begin of the Mexican Transformation in 1910. San Antonio was a significant army centre during World Wars I and also II, a factor that continued to control its economic situation in succeeding decades. In 1968 a globe’s presentation, known as HemisFair, was held there to memorialize the city’s 250th wedding anniversary as well as to celebrate its social connections with Latin America.
In 1981 Henry Cisneros was elected the city’s very first Hispanic mayor since the mid-19th century; Cisneros served up until 1989. In 2001 Ed Garza was elected the city’s second modern-era Hispanic mayor as well as remained in office up until 2005.